Nature and the Cello

We often get some very exceptional and devoted kids that come to our nature based programs. They come to our program during the day and afterwards go off to swimming lessons, piano practice, cartoon drawing class and cello practice. Some of our students show their talent to the world by busking. Jacob is such a devoted Soaring Eagle Nature school student, that he decided to donate half of the money he made while busking with his cello to our scholarship fund.

Thank you, Jacob! Your donation has already helped kids come to summer camp this summer!

Medicinal Plants and their uses

When I was first learning about medicinal plants I was drawn to it because it was a more natural way to deal with health.  I wasn’t really sure just how effective medicinal plants could be because I had never really had the need.

I just noticed that when I felt a cold coming on and I took some Echinacea, the cold tended to go away quite quickly or not start at all.

Then I went through a period of time where I started having stomach cramps and I would vomit and then I’d be fine for a little while, but then it would come back again. After a few days of this pattern I was getting to the point where it seemed like I needed to go a doctor because I didn’t seem to be getting any better.

But I had a book on medicinal plants and I looked up stomach issues.  And one of the main things I noticed on that page was that dandelion is really good for stomach issues.

So I said what the heck, I’ve had dandelion before, I know it can’t hurt me.  Maybe there’s a chance it’ll make me feel better.

So I went outside and picked some dandelion.  I only ate a few leaves but over the next few hours my stomach felt a lot better.

I was quite impressed and actually surprised by how quickly it made a difference.  I kept eating dandelion everyday and the stomach problems never came back again.

I don’t know for sure that it was the dandelion that made the difference for me but it was nice to be feeling healthy again.  I still like to eat dandelion whenever I can because it tastes good and It’s good medicine.

Step one for learning medicinal plants and their uses:  know the preparations

When you’re studying medicinal plants and their uses one of the things you learn is that there’s lots of different ways to prepare medicinal plants that serve different functions.

Depending on how you prepare a plant for use, you’ll get different aspects of the medicine.

Here are some of the major ways to prepare plants

A tincture is a concentrated alcohol-based liquid form of a plant medicine.  By soaking plant material in drinking alcohol we can extract a variety of compounds into a simple liquid form that provides it’s benefits at doses of only a few drops.

Always check the ratio of herb to alcohol with a reliable source before making a tincture.

Everyone is familiar with this preparation where the herb is steeped in hot water.

This extracts a different subset of plant components and thus can have a different effect on your body than taking a tincture.  .

A salve is an extraction of plant components into a form that can be applied to the skin.

Often it involves mixing a hot water preparation of the plant with something like beeswax.  When the mixture cools, it hardens into natural body butter.

Often medicinal plants can also be used as a nutritious food. One of the best examples of this is dandelion.

You don’t have to be sick to eat a dandelion.  It’s one of the most nutritious plants on the planet and it will keep you healthy if you eat it as part of your diet.

You can also extract plant compounds into oils like olive oil.  It’s a bit of a variation of salves so you have some options for how to create topical treatments.

These are probably the easiest, safest and usually the most effective ways to prepare and use medicinal plants.

As you learn more about the different plants that you work with, you’ll get to learn how each plant affects you differently depending on how it is prepared

If you learn to use plants this way, you’ll be able to do basic medicinal applications of plants.

Step two of learning medicinal plants and their uses:  Developing your repertoire

One of my mentors who taught me a lot about plants once told me that the really good herbalists work with the problems they encounter by using only a handful of different plants that they know really well.

They learn all the different ways to prepare them and develop a keen awareness of how each plant impacts the body.

So when you go out to start learning this and you’re trying to decide which plants to work with, one of the things that will give you the most success is to look for simple plants that are common, and have a lot of different uses.

Dandelion is one of my selected few plants.  The more I use it the more uses I discover so my experience of dandelion keeps getting deeper and deeper.

Plus it’s extremely common.

It would be pointless to have amazing knowledge of an extremely rare plant because every time you needed it, you would have to make a big trip out of it.

By choosing just a few of the most common and widely applicable plants to focus on. You learn a lot more quickly, you learn a lot more deeply, and the skill becomes much more practical for your everyday life.

Cultivating awareness

Pay attention to how different plants or preparations affect your body.

All plants have different qualities that are described differently in different cultures, but have a general consistency from place to place.

For example, it’s very common for people to experience the medicine from spices like pepper or cinnamon as having a warm quality.

Likewise a common experience of peppermint is that it feels cool.

This informs your decisions about what plants to use because the different qualities of plants relate to the various imbalances of sickness.

When someone has a fever, you’re not going to give him or her a “hot” medicine like cinnamon.  We’d be more likely to give something like peppermint because it encourages the body to sweat but it also has a cooling affect that will help the fever.

Another good quality of plants to pay attention for is the relative level of wetness vs. dryness or astringency.  You’ll notice that some plants leave your mouth feeling dry.

Plantain is an excellent common plant that has that astringent quality and if you make a poultice with the leaves it will actually suck the stinger from a bee right out of your skin.

Pay attention for these qualities when you use different plants and even with the foods you eat in your day-to-day life.  Really be present and develop your awareness by asking yourself some good questions.

Is it hot or cold?

Is it wet or dry?

Where do you feel the effects in your body?

Some plants will seem to affect your head while other will be down in your body more. It’s all good awareness that will inform your use of medicinal plants.

Preventative medicine

A lot of time people get into medicinal plants because they want to know how to heal their problems in a more natural way.

And while you definitely can learn to do that, sometimes the best way to look at using medicinal plants and their uses is to consider that the real benefit of medicinal plants is in how they can keep you from getting sick in the first place.

By learning to pay attention to your body and how the environment is impacting you, you’ll learn to recognize the advanced signs that you be getting ill and you’ll know which preparations to take that can just give your immune system that little boost.

A lot of times the underlying problem is that people aren’t getting enough nutrition in their food.  When you start to think about all your food as being medicine, it’ll impact every choice you make in such a way that moves you towards greater health and wellness.

Bird Language With Tully The Cat

Bird language is the ability to read into the communication network of wild animals.

Whenever an animal moves out in nature, the birds are watching and they will give off calls that let other animals know what is happening.

Its a lot like those motion detectors people put outside their homes for security.

The motion detector has sensitive equipment that detects the movement of people moving in close to your house.

When the sensor catches movement it switches on a light which lets everyone who is paying attention know that something is moving in that spot.

When you practice the language of the birds, you’ll learn to detect the signs that animals are moving in forest around you.

Concentric rings

When you stretch your awareness with bird language, you’ll start to notice patterns in bird behavior that let you know when certain events are happening in the landscape.

If an animal is moving in the forest, It’s like dropping a stone into a still pond.  Rings of water emanate in waves from the center of the disturbance.

By observing closely for how the waves of activity are expressed by different birds. you can track how these concentric rings move through the landscape via bird vocalizations.

All you have to do is find the center from which the activity emanates in order to find the animal that is causing the alarm.

With enough listening and observation, you can learn to read the concentric rings that tell you exactly where an animal is and what kind of animal it is.

Bird Language with Tully

After I had been studying the language of the birds for a while and I had started to pick up on certain vocalizations that the birds make when there are animals nearby. I wanted to test my skills as a hunter.

I was living at a house in the country and one of my housemates had a cat named Tully.

I noticed that when Tully was outside the birds acted differently than when he was inside. Their behavior changed incrementally depending on how close by he was.

I would practice using bird language as the traditional hunters would have by trying to sneak up on Tully without him noticing.

Sometimes I was successful and got quite close before I heard his characteristic “meow!” that would let me know I had been caught.

An Ancient Skill

The language of the birds is very subtle.  It’s a kind of awareness that was traditionally quite deeply ingrained in the culture of nature-based people.

People who have a deep awareness of nature and knowledge of place usually didn’t get this ability from consciously trying to learn it.  It’s the result of an unconsciously ingrained awareness.

There are ways to cultivate this awareness more intentionally if you don’t have a culture surrounding you that already has this skill.

The most important factor that determines how well you get this skill comes down to the amount of sit spot time you have.

The quality of your awareness in one place that you visit regularly to connect with nature and make observations eventually turns into the ability to perceive the concentric rings on the landscape.

It’s a fascinating process.

Bird Behavior

Let’s learn about the lives of birds!

Bird behavior is one of the one of the most fascinating subjects in bird studies.  It takes the act of bird watching to the next level because we’re not just trying to identify a species of bird.  We’re also focusing on what is going on in the life of that bird.

Birds have so much more to them than just their name and when we really take the time to watch and get to know them in a high quality way, the world of birds opens up to show us unique individuals living their lives, raising families and struggling to survive.

Learning to watch for what is going on in the lives of birds teaches us so much about nature and its one of most exciting ways to connect with the natural world.

Making good observations about birds is something that everyone is capable of.  We don’t often exercise the skill of observation in the modern world but with a little bit of practice you’ll be amazed by what you can detect in the subtlety of bird behavior.

It’s incredible to realize just how much is going on around us all the time without us even noticing.

Watching and Listening

On the most basic level, there are only two simple steps to observing birds. All you have to do is practice these two steps over and over again.

Step one: Watch
Step two: Listen

That’s all there is to it!

If all you did was take 5 minutes everyday to sit outside watching and listening to the birds, in a few months time you would be noticing so much more than you are right now.

Of course, if you have some ideas for what to look for it can definitely speed up your learning process so I’ve made a basic guide to bird behavior below.

The best part of those two basic steps however is that you always have something to fall back on.  The birds are really going to be your best teachers and if you pay close attention, they will teach you everything you need to be a master bird observer.

So with watching and listening established, let’s look at some other points to speed up your learning journey and put you on the fast track to become a super perceptive bird nerd.

Behaviors to watch for

Here are some of the basic bird behaviors to look for.  Sometimes the actions of birds are very obvious but sometimes they can be quite subtle.  Just keep getting out there and eventually you’ll get it.

It’s helpful to have binoculars as you’re starting out because you can see the birds much more closely.


Watch for birds on the lawn hunting for worms, or gleaning tasty insects off the branches of a tree.  This is one of the first behaviors you’ll be able to pick up on because it’s so common.

Can you figure out what they’re eating?

Territorial behavior

Especially in spring time birds will set up territories and defend them from other birds.  You’ll notice a lot of aggression between males as they fight with each other near the boundaries of their space.

It makes an awful racket and is quite easy to detect but can also be confused with alarm behavior.  If you see two members of the same species fighting, you’re probably seeing a territorial squabble.

Another behavior that is linked to territory is song.  When the birds start singing in spring, keep your eyes out for territorial behavior.


There’s a lot of rich behavior to observe as the birds prepare to raise families.  A lot of birds have rituals or displays that they give around courtship.  It’s your first indicator that the birds are getting ready to start a family.

Courtship displays are pretty cool and can be quite subtle until you train your eyes to pay attention for it.  Some birds will feed each other.  Some will dance together and others will bob their heads back and forth rhythmically.


In early spring, most of the birds you see will be getting ready to build a nest.  That means there are a lot of nests on the landscape.

It’s pretty amazing how good birds are at hiding their nests.  Watch for birds flying back and forth with nest material in their mouths, then later with food in their mouths as the nestlings hatch.

There are distinct behavioral changes at each stage as the nestlings get larger, leave the nest to start flocking.


It can be a lot of fun and very informative to track how populations of birds migrate.

Some birds are incredibly consistent with when they decide to migrate.   Really good watchers of bird behavior can sometimes predict right to the exact day when a particular species is likely to be coming through on their migration course.

Seasonal awareness

As you watch bird behavior, you’ll notice that there’s an even subtler layer beyond the specific actions that the birds are taking.

By making close observations year after year, you’ll start to notice differences in general bird activity that is linked to varying weather conditions, insect populations and other factors.

You’ll never get bored trying to figure out which factors are influencing bird behavior to be different from year to year.

This level of awareness with the birds will inform all your observations in nature and you’ll discover a whole new way of understanding how the birds are teaching you about the landscape.

Bird Language

Bird language is the communication system of birds as it applies to detecting the movements of predators in the landscape.

Some behaviors that occur around predators are quite obvious once you know what to look for.

The mobbing that occurs around an owl is a fairly simple bird language behavior that you can learn to detect.

But there are also deeper layers to bird language beyond the specific behaviors that you can learn to detect by understanding bird activity within the context of predator interactions.

With a deep knowledge of bird language, it becomes possible to follow the hidden movements of cats, hawks and other animals with incredible accuracy.

Keep Learning and Observing

Bird behavior is a fascinating practice that will never become stale but get more and more interesting the more you learn and the more you realize how much there is to learn.

It’s a great way to deepen your relationship to the birds and anybody can do it.

Happy Birding!

A Story of Bitterroot

Bitterroot (Lewisia rediviva, L. columbiana, L. pygmaea) was once a staple food for the Okanagan, Ktunaxa and Upper Nlaka’pamux People. It was the most important of all roots. Its bright and beautiful pink flowers bloom in June, adding a hue of colour and magic to the rocky ecosystem where it thrives. Years ago, it was once traded as a dried good, and was also eaten. The prime harvesting time was right before the flowers bloomed, when the outer part of the roots were still easy to peel off. Once processed, the root was roasted or steamed in steam pits and eaten.  It was also dried and stored for later consumption. Traditionally, it was dug using digging sticks, which were dug into the earth and used to pry up the roots. (As shown in picture below.)

Nowadays, bitterroot has become a rare sight due to overgrazing and the encroachment on its habitat by humans and cattle. To come across this beautiful plant is an honour, and this past June , in eastern Washington, I was fortunate enough to find huge patches.

Bitterroot thrives in the desert, on rocky patches, where it digs its roots into the hard, dry soil. To me, the colours of the desert (the ponderosa pine and sagebrush desert) always seem so stunning in their surroundings. Out of nowhere, among the dry, crackling grasses and the hard, red earth, are the bright pinks, yellows , blues and oranges of the wild flowers, as well as the glimpses of deeper blues and whites of our feathered friends, swooping overhead.

As I kneel down to connect with this plant, my digging stick in my hand, I think of all the other people who have dug this plant before me, who have relied on it for a source of food. I know that when I eat it, I am connecting further with this land, this desert. The more wildness I can bring into my body, the closer to the earth I become.  The earth continues to grow and change and live and die without us humans. We are not needed by the earth for its regeneration and well being. The more we use things from the earth, and make deep and meaningful connections, the greater our respect and reverence. As I walked and dug carefully, only harvesting a few plants from each patch, I felt the flowers blooming a little brighter.

In this desert rattlesnakes make their home, as well as mountain lions, coyotes, bighorn sheep and elk, and many other creatures. Plants adapt to only a few inches of rain per year by growing close to the ground and by minimal photosynthesising (hence the abundance of light green plants). Its a blessing to come across open streams and canyons, where the ecosystems change because of the amount of water present. Weaving our way through canyons and meadows, up steep mountains and cliffs, all to find our next source of water, our next source of food, our next place to sleep.

All photos by Steve Leckman.

For more information on bitterroot and desert plants, check out:

Food Plants of Interior First Peoples (Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook) by Nancy J. Turner

Plants of southern interior British Columbia and the inland northwest [Paperback] by Parish, Coupe and Lloyd